Military Bunker Schulerloch
In the Schulerloch recreation area near the town, there is a reconstructed military shelter of the ÚŽ-6 type, where you can see authentic military objects from the 1960s-1980s. The mini-exposition inside the bunker is dedicated to the memory of the Military Unit 3521 in Spišská Nová Ves.
INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO GET TO THE BUNKER
ENTRANCE TO THE BUNKER IS FREE-OF-CHARGE
THE DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN TWO WAYS:
- using a chip – it can be borrowed for a deposit of €30 at the Tourist Information Center (TIC, adress: Letná 49, Spišská Nová Ves)
- using a mobile application (internet connection + bluetooth required)
HOW TO DO IT:
- Call the Tourist Information Center (TIC) - tel. +421 053 429 8293
- Tell us:
- your name
- your phone number (the mobile which you will use to open)
- date/time when you want to visit the bunker
If the TIC is open at that time, our worker will fill in your data in the system and send an SMS.
- You will receive a link in the SMS, which you need to click on and download the AirKey application.
- Turn Bluetooth on.
- At the door, open the installed AirKey application.
- Touch the lock in the door and a „BUNKER“ title will appear in the application, which you must click on.
- The lock on the door will flash green and now turn it to the right to unlock the door.
WHEN LEAVING, PLEASE LOCK THE DOOR THE SAME WAY (OPEN THE APP, CLICK ON THE "BUNKER" title AND TURN THE LOCK TO THE LEFT TO LOCK IT). THANK YOU.
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS OF THE MILITARY BUNKER ÚŽ-6
Entry for visitors to the bunker is possible only at their own risk and responsibility. Visitors are obliged to comply with all these operating regulations. Even if you follow the instructions below, entering and staying in the bunker is at your own risk, and visitors to the bunker are therefore responsible for themselves and their children.
- Children under the age of 15 are allowed to enter the bunker only when accompanied by persons over the age of 18. These adult persons are fully responsible for the behavior and safety of the children.
- A maximum of 10 people can be in the bunker at the same time.
- You enter the bunker through the main entrance using a mobile application (follow the instructions at the door) or using a chip (which can be borrowed at the Tourist Information Center).
- To enter the bunker, you must have your own source of light.
- Persons under the influence of alcoholic beverages or other addictive substances are prohibited from entering the bunker.
- When leaving the bunker, visitors are required to lock the door properly.
- It is forbidden to:
• bring any animals into the bunker and let them roam freely around
• write, paint or carve in the bunker object or otherwise damage it
• manipulate the equipment, damage or steal it
• damage the AirKey lock on the bunker door
• enter the bunker in a way other than through the main entrance
• pollute the bunker premises and its surroundings in any way
• disturb with noise or otherwise inconvenience other visitors
• bring and consume alcoholic beverages and other addictive substances in the bunker
• smoke in the bunker building or in its immediate surroundings
• use an open flame in the bunker building or in its immediate vicinity
FROM THE HISTORY
PREFABRICATED ÚŽ-6 SHELTERS
The shelters were the only purely military bunkers built in Czechoslovakia after World War II. They date back to 1960s-1980s.
They consist of reinforced concrete prefabricates and were developed in the early 1960s. They were originally built on new lines of field fortifications near the border with the Federal Republic of Germany.
To build a bunker, a pit had to be excavated and gravel bed with drainage prepared. The prefabricates were placed into the pit using a crane. The prefabricates were joined by wire and insulated. Finally, the bunker was covered with soil. The bunker was less resistant than the monolithic bunkers built during the 1st Czechoslovak Republic. The price for which the ÚŽ-6 bunker could be built in the 1960s was roughly 25 000 Czechoslovak crowns, which would be roughly EUR 10 000 today. The bunkers did not require camouflage against close look, enabling them to have visible entrances without soil cover.
The bunker walls were only 15 cm thick but they were believed to reduce penetrating radiation by as much as 1 500 times. The bunkers could resist a direct hit by mortar ammunition and artillery shells up to 105 mm calibre. The bunkers were also resistant to the explosion of a 155 mm calibre shell at a distance of 3.5 m.
The predecessors of the ÚŽ-6 bunkers were the ÚŽ-1, ÚŽ-2 and ÚŽ-3 bunkers. The ÚŽ-6 bunkers were divided into ÚŽ-6a, ÚŽ-6b and ÚŽ-6c types. The plan was to produce and assemble the ÚŽ-6d type and the ÚŽ-7 version with two small rooms on the sides of the entrance corridor and a main room identical to the ÚŽ-6b bunker. The different types of ÚŽ-6 bunkers differed mainly in size: the ÚŽ-6a bunker had a shelter room of 10.8 m2, the ÚŽ-6b bunker had a shelter room of 6 x 2.3 m, i.e. 13.8 m2, and the ÚŽ-6d bunker was planned to have two shelter rooms side by side.
Over time, the ÚŽ-6 bunkers were improved. Originally, these bunkers had a very simple emergency exit, an opening covered by boards. After removing the boards, soldiers were meant to dig their way to the surface. The emergency exit of a newer version of the bunkers was a shaft with rungs. This shaft was built of prefabricates and led to the surface. At the top of the emergency exit was a trap door, which was supported by a sloping girder. The trapdoor was covered by a thin layer of material. When the support was removed, the cover material fell into the shaft and it was possible to climb comfortably through the emergency exit to the surface.
The air supply and purification was provided by a Soviet-made FVKP kit, which was manufactured under licence in Czechoslovakia. A modern Czechoslovak FVZ filtration kit was installed in these bunkers from 1980s. The bunker was heated by a VVA-6 diesel or solid fuel heater connected to the chimney. The bunker crew had the necessary tools, basic furniture and various medical and anti-chemical equipment. The bunker only had a latrine that had to be taken out. There were urinals in the bunkers, connected to the bunker drainage. There was no water source in the bunker. The crew had to bring water and store it in large containers. Kerosene lamps or a portable lighting system connected to an external power source were used for lighting. If the bunkers were connected to the electricity grid, permanent lamps were installed in the bunkers and the portable heating system was replaced by an electric oil radiator.
Protection from pressure waves was provided by four gas-tight steel closures: one 5 mm ŽDV-2 door and three 1 mm ŽDV-6 two-piece doors. Electric power for the fan and portable lamps were supplied by an allocated vehicle or a small electric generator.
A major weakness of the bunkers was the absence of measuring instruments to make the necessary measurements from the safety of the bunker. For example, the method of determining the distance of an atomic bomb explosion was very primitive. The distance was meant to be determined by a stopwatch using the time between the flash and the sound of the explosion. Some bunkers had an antenna pipe in the ceiling, with screwable caps on both ends.
The ÚŽ-6 bunkers were used as part of the Territorial Radiation Reporting Network. They formed a regular network consisting of triangles with a side length of about 20 km. The network of bunkers stopped 10-20 km from the border. The ÚŽ-6 bunkers were also located at concentration sites, which were used to concentrate troops prior to their deployment to protect them from weapons of mass destruction. The ÚŽ-6 bunkers were also used for training exercises. They were also used as shelters for operating radio-technical installations, airfields and anti-aircraft missile batteries. Bunkers were also built at the permanent positions of radio-technical companies, near resistant aircraft hangars (“hives”), around airfields and near training facilities. The ÚŽ-6a bunker was used as a shelter bunker and the ÚŽ-6b bunker as a working bunker.
Most ÚŽ-6 bunkers were only partially buried in the ground, making them appear as mounds. Unlike the defensive lines at the border, camouflage of these bunkers was not important. As a result, their construction became easier. Exceptionally, the bunkers were built entirely above or below the surrounding terrain.
Source: O. Filip: Prefabricated reinforced concrete and steel shelters inland